Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Known in medical parlance as Diabetes mellitus, this is a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels, caused either due to insufficient production of blood glucose controlling hormones or unresponsiveness of the cells to the blood glucose controlling hormones, or both.
In this type of diabetes, the pancreas is unable to synthesize a key blood glucose controlling hormone. When you consume food, it is broken down into glucose in the small intestine and absorbed into the bloodstream. In normal circumstances, the pancreatic beta cells detect the rise in blood sugar levels and works to reduce the glucose levels.
In type 1 diabetes, however, the beta cells do not produce blood glucose controlling hormones, which results in high blood glucose levels. Moreover, the white blood cells (WBCs) secrete auto antibodies which destroy the beta cells of the pancreas.
The pancreas fails to produce enough blood glucose controlling hormones for proper functioning of the body, or the cells resist the effects of the hormone, or both. This results in a condition known as Hyperglycemia, which is the increase in glucose levels in the blood.
A temporary condition affecting women during pregnancy
It is an autoimmune disorder, that is, the immune system attacks and kills the cells in the pancreas which produce hormones to control the blood sugar levels due to a combination of genetic predisposition and other unidentified environmental factors.
This is mainly caused due to the resistance of the cells to blood glucose controlling hormones. Because of this, the glucose cannot be moved from the blood into the cells. Gradually, as sugar builds up in the blood, it poisons the pancreas, making it more difficult to keep the blood glucose levels under control.
There are certain other risk factors which puts a person at an increased risk of developing diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is treated by injecting blood glucose controlling hormones into the fatty tissue through the skin by the means of a syringe, pre-filled cartridges, pumps or jet injectors.
Treatment for type 2 diabetes consists of the following measures:
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